Sunday, July 19, 2020

The Day of Martin Luther King

The Day of Martin Luther King Martin Luther King Day Home›Tips for Students›Martin Luther King Day Tips for StudentsCelebrations in USASchool lessons dedicated to the memory of Martin Luther King, one of the most outstanding American civil rights leadersEducational institutions celebrate Martin Luther King Day by teaching pupils and students about the work of this prominent person who influenced the course of US history. They tell young people about the difficult life path of Martin Luther King, his struggle against racial segregation and racism. Teachers emphasize the importance of the democratic principles in the society and the equality of all citizens, irrespective of religious and cultural identity.Federal holidays dedicated to the memory of Martin Luther KingIt is worth noting that people of different US states often combine the celebration of Martin Luther King Day with other federal holidays. Therefore, the citizens of Arizona usually celebrate Martin Luther King Day and Civil Rights Day at the same time. Many people who live in Idaho combine the celebration of Martin Luther King Day with Human Rights Day. Sometimes, Martin Luther King Day is combined with the birthday of Robert E. Lee in some US states. Moreover, the inhabitants of Wyoming often call Martin Luther King Day as the Day of Wyoming Equality.Social activities dedicated to the memory of Martin Luther KingMartin Luther King Day is one of the most important days of the year for all the Americans. On this day, inessential Government departments and corporations are closed. Only, small grocery shops and some restaurants are open for the visitors. People tend to stay at home and discuss the life and work of Martin Luther King. Also, on Martin Luther King Day, the Americans try to spend some of their time working as volunteers in citizen action groups.Martin Luther King Day is a new federal holiday in the USA. Nevertheless, it has become one of the most favorite holidays for all the Americans. Due to this holiday, the US citizens have the opportunity to preserve the values of Martin Luther King and disseminate them to other countries.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Alzheimers Disease Essay - 2733 Words

Memory loss, like old age is a condition which mankind has always reluctantly recognized and always – with resignation. Memory loses are sometimes trivial and meaningless and go unrecognized. However, when these loses are so great that a person does not know who or where they are the concerns are quite grave. Although it is realize that Alzheimers disease destroys the brain memory function, many do not realize precisely how the memory is destroyed once one is aware of the process, it becomes faster to work forward to alleviate the destruction. Without memory there is no knowledge to recreate or reproduce past perceptions, emotions, thoughts and actions that are so vital to live a full and functioning life. Memory is the†¦show more content†¦But this pattern of neural firing is quickly destroyed in one of two ways; the receptor neurons adapt to the input (10- 11). The brain can register only one item at a time. If two events are occurring at the same time the storage o f the information will depend on the importance of information to the individual. Neural decay is perhaps the simplest types of forgetting (Seligmann 51). As explained by Dick Gilling, the short-term memory ‘holds items until a person decides how important they are and if they need to be transferred to the long-term memory for permanent storage (15). According to the experience, the brain has made a mental index card for each category experience. These index categories are used when someone wants to retrieve an item from memory storage banks. Sometimes these ‘mental index cards get catalogued in the wrong way, that is misfiled, or even lost (14). When someone has learned too many things at once, cataloging errors frequently occur (Hamdy 93). For example, if a person is introduced to a dozen unfamiliar people at a party, mistakes will be made trying to attach the right names to proper faces. If a person were to meet one new individual a day for a dozen days, the chances w ill be greater of getting the file cards filed out correctly. Misfiling also occurs, and people have trouble locating items in their memoryShow MoreRelatedAlzheimers Disease1334 Words   |  6 PagesAlzheimer’s Disease Brittany Mathis HCS/245 July 14,2013 Tynan Weed Abstract Alzheimer’s has many causes and affects each patient differently. There have been studies done that have found that older African American’s are more likely to develop Alzheimer’s than older whites. A cause of Alzheimer’s has not been completely identified yet, but genetic and environmental factors are known to increase the risk. While we all know that Alzheimer’s is a complicated disease there areRead MoreThe Disease Of Alzheimer s Disease1421 Words   |  6 Pagesengulfed by a mysterious disease. The neurons being cut off and destroyed by two abnormal structures. First memory is affected gradually getting worse. Then one is unable to think properly, reason, and lacks of self control. Gaps are formed in the brain s ventricles, due to the amount of dead tissue. In the end, it will lead to death. All of this may sound like something from a science fiction movie but infact its very real. These are all known possible symptoms of a common disease that affects aboutRead MoreAlzheimer s Disease And Disease935 Words   |  4 Pageswith Alzheimer’s disease. This disease is commonly found in the elderly. This explains why people assume older people have a bad memory. Alzheimer’s does not occur in a short period of time, it typically takes months to develop. It involves gradual memory loss due to two specific protein fragments that spread to different parts of the brain killing brain cells as they go. As mentioned in the article Alzheimer’s Disease Fact Sheet (2015), Dr. Alois Alzheimer first discovered the disease by noticing somethingRead MoreThe Disease Of Alzheimer s Disease1304 Words   |  6 Pagesperson knows well, or asking questions continuously can be signs of a more serious problem. It is a disease of the brain that started slowly and gets worse as the time progresses. Alzheimer’s is a progressive destroying of brain tissue that primarily strikes people over the age of 65. Brain functions such as memory, comprehension, and speech deteriorate. The term first introduced by Dr. Alois Alzheimers in 1906. Memory is lost first. As days passes, attention tends to distracted, simple calculationsRead MoreThe Disease Of Alzheimer s Disease1677 Words   |  7 Pagesone thing Alzheimer s cannot take away, and that is love. Love is not a memory - it s a feeling that resides in your heart and soul.† (Fade to Blank). The human brain is a remarkably complex organ that processes, stores, and recalls information. â€Å"Alzheimer s disease (AD) is a slowly progressive disease of the brain that is characterized by impairment of memory and eventually by disturbances in reasoning, planning, language, and perception. Many scientists believe that Alzheimer s disease resultsRead MoreThe Disease Of Alzheimer s Disease1172 Words   |  5 PagesAlzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’s disease is the 6th leading cause of death in America. It kills more than breast cancer and prostate cancer combined. Alzheimer’s accounts for 70-80% of dementia cases. By the age of 65, 1 in 9 people are diagnosed and by the age of 85, 1 in 3 people will have the disease. According to the Alzheimer Association, 5 million people in American have Alzheimer’s. Alzheimer’s starts to form 20 years prior to being diagnosed. Learning about Alzheimer’s can help familiesRead MoreAlzheimer s Disease : Disease1759 Words   |  8 Pages Alzheimer’s Disease Madison Lollar Psychology 1030-C62 Volstate Community College Word Count: 1,589 Alzheimer’s Disease: When it comes to Alzheimer’s, I know firsthand how it affects individuals and their families. My great grandfather had Alzheimer’s for many years before his passing late last year, at age 92. Alzheimer’s is a disease that many individuals suffer with each year, but yet with all the advancements in modern medicine we still have no cure for it. There are differentRead MoreThe Disease Of Alzheimer s Disease1385 Words   |  6 PagesThe disease stem cells could fix is called Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). The reason I chose this topic is because I have seen first hand how badly someone who suffers from Alzheimer’s Disease is affected in their daily lives. This disease completely takes over their lives and they turn into a completely different person who can hardly function. AD is very tough on the loved ones of the person suffering from it because that person, most of the time has no idea what is going on or who their loved onesRead More Alzheimers Disease Essay1174 Words   |  5 Pages Alzheimer 1 nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;It is inevitable that eventually each of us will grow old and begin to face more and more health problems as our age rises. Elderly people are challenged by many illnesses and diseases that unfortunately, are incurable. One disease that becomes more common as people age is Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s a common cause and a form of dementia and can severely damage a patient’s cognitive functions and can ultimately cause death. Living with Alzheimer’s diseaseRead MoreAlzheimer s Disease : A Disease1304 Words   |  6 Pages10, 2015 Alzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’s is a disease in the brain that affects a person’s memory, thinking, and behavior. It is the most common form of dementia and is common in adults older than 65. More than five million Americans are being affected by Alzheimer’s at this moment. Alzheimer’s comes in three stages; early, middle, and advanced. The disease is caused by the shrinking of the brain due to many risk factors and genetics. Dementia and Alzheimer’s disease are often confused because

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Gender And Sexuality Article On Sexualised Insult Fag...

Both terms ‘gender’ and ‘sexuality’ are very common, broad and the meaning of it differs from person to person. Eugenically the term ‘gender’ is defined to have socially composed roles, activities, behaviours, and peculiarity that a given society considers right for men and women (WHO, 2015). Whereas the term ‘sexuality’ has various meanings, it is described as feeling or having attraction or having sexual thoughts and preferences towards same sex or opposite sex (reachout.com, 2015). This essay will explore Pascoe’s (2005) article on sexualised insult ‘fag’ by American teenage boys. It will also focus on the racialized nature of this ‘fag’ discourse. As it is not the only identity related to homosexual men but can briefly associate to heterosexual men as well. Another sexualised insult ‘slut’ depicted in Attwood’s (2007) work has many meanings and has changed overtime. This will be illustrated by highlighting how the word ‘slut’ was used to define women sexually and their struggle over class, race and generation. The term ‘bitch’ explored in Crawford Popp (2003) study share similar perspective to Attwood’s work where talking about sexuality or gender would involve making assumption about race and class. This will help present the different identities which people use to define their sexuality and gender such as gay, fag, slut and bitch in terms of race and class. This will be explored in various academics work. This implies that understanding about sexuality and gender in

Magaret Thatcher Free Essays

Margaret Thatcher: Optimism, self-confidence, honesty, integrity and drive are just a few traits that portray Margaret Thatcher. Her leadership style may be defined as a combination of an autocratic, transformational and charismatic leader. Nevertheless, her leadership style was mainly task oriented. We will write a custom essay sample on Magaret Thatcher or any similar topic only for you Order Now What are her values? Margaret Thatcher considered herself to be a conviction politician. Her leadership was based on clear firmly held principles. Margaret Thatcher’s family and early education in Grantham played a major part in shaping her political beliefs. She was taught strong traditions of self-help, charitable work, and ethics. What make her a great leader? Margaret Thatcher was very influential in her leadership role. She had been tough, forthright, consistent and inspiring. She had empowered and motivated the citizens of Britain to purchase their homes in which they lived at a discounted price. Additionally, companies that the state initially owned were now owned by the community. Her intent was to change Britain from a dependent to a self-reliant society. Margaret Thatcher success of implementing the privatization policy of government assets had improved influential internationally. Moreover, Margaret Thatcher had a firm approached to policy making and exuded self confidence, which gained her the nickname â€Å"Iron Lady†. She was willing to act on her intuition and trusted her judgments. She accomplished her goals and was never afraid to stand up for her beliefs even if it made her unpopular. Despite her colleagues and experts objections, Margaret Thatcher was very confident in her decision making. In Britain, she was an autocratic leader who governed decision making. For instance, while the recession of the early 1980s intensified, she increased taxes, despite concerns expressed in a statement signed by 364 leading economists issued towards the end of March 1981. Margaret Thatcher prided herself of being in charge and winning the majority of her debates. She was very combative; fighting for what she believed was the right way to direct her country. Margaret Thatcher was committed to lessening the power of the trade unions, whose leadership she blamed for weakening parliamentary democracy and economic performance during industrial action. BBC news reported that, Margaret Thatcher â€Å"managed to destroy the power of the trade unions for almost a generation†. She demonstrated courage and positive attitude during the face of adversity. In 1984, Margaret Thatcher barely escaped injury in a PIRA assassination attempt at a Brighton hotel. However, she was adamant about delivering her speech the next day as scheduled, at the Conservative Party Conference. Margaret Thatcher was a transformational leader who inspired others and brought about significant change. Her intention was to lead Britain to greatness by overcoming the country’s economic and financial challenges. She privatized some nationalized industries and social programs, including education, housing, and health care. Britain’s economic upturn in the 1980s was due to Margaret Thatcher’s leadership. She also regained the Falkland Island from Argentina. She took a strong stand against the trade unions during the miner’s strike (1984-85), and moved Britain toward privatization, selling minor interest s in public utilities to the business interests. She also introduced â€Å"rate capping† which effectively took control of expenditures out of the hands of city councils, part of her policies aimed at reducing the influence of local governments. In 1989 she introduced the community poll tax. Where possible, sale of state assets took place through offering shares to the public, with generous terms for small investors. The Thatcher Governments presided over a great increase in the number of people saving through the stock market. They also encourage people to buy their own homes and to make private pension provision, policies which over time have greatly increased the personal wealth of the British population. Conclusion Margaret Thatcher was the first British Prime Minister in the twentieth century to win three consecutive terms. Serving as a transformational change agent, Ms. Thatcher tackle distorted public opinion and braved daunting unpopularity to implement reform. Showing an adept touch at choosing her issues carefully, and fighting battles that could be won, Ms. Thatcher established urgency, formed a strong vision backed by a guiding coalition and planned for short-term wins. Her greatest legacy is the degree to which she institutionalized her reform policies. Ms. Thatcher represented such a unique, decisive, unflinching character, with the ability to capitalize on circumstances and energy. _____________________________________ Bibliography Margaret Thatcher Foundation –margaretthatcher. org Wikipedia How to cite Magaret Thatcher, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Western Civilization Essay Example

Western Civilization Essay Structured society relies on people knowing how to survive, and also how to survive with others. According to Owen, (1997), there exist the general skeleton of the social order which is so well distinct, planned, and planned that there’s room for personal freedom and creativity within the organization. In structured society, people works while every individual knowing his duty, for example if the society is structured, socially politically and economically. There need to be law and order hence need for specialization, this reduces conflict in terms of role assignment. The specialization is known to be the major drive for civilization. When mixed with division of labor, specialization allows for maintenance of law and order. In such societies duties and responsibilities are stated, for example in political structure we have the roles of the president affirmed and written in the constitution therefore one has guidelines to abide with. The leader has to have subject to rule, itâ €™s not possible to have rulers if you have no people to rule, hence need for structured society whereby people are civilized and are able to live together in harmony. Law and order is very vital in such societies (Owen, 1997). Christiano (2004) observes that when we live within the law, we share in the common good which helps all, and provides for a better world to grow and live in. But In Aristotelian scholasticism, ethics which are the basis for law are understood to mean the science for good life (Barford, 1996). In the same context, man is regarded as rational animal and therefore able to act in accordance with the right reason and also able to act justly and courageous. As members of the society, we are supposed to come together and advance based on the laws of the society we live in.   Reilly (2000) thinks that liberty was necessary for revolution only when used like a guiding rule, he emphasized that independence of each person must be respected. However, according to him total freedom for all cannot exist as a basis of the society. For one person to have entirely autonomy over another person, the other person will have to give up their freedom to allow the former to survive. When people move from their tribal clique, races to join new people in the working places for example town, they are said to undergo civilization which is a slow process which started long time ago more than 5000 years ago (Jessop, 1998). Civilization brings positive competition where everyone will do his best to be on the top of other ladder, sparkle. Civilized People are able to live together irrespective of their social background; it has increased trust between individuals to an extent that people are able to collect each other whenever a neighbor go astray, therefore togetherness in the community. We will write a custom essay sample on Western Civilization specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Western Civilization specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Western Civilization specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Natural law is viewed by many philosophers as the instrument used in the exploration of gods will. As Martin, (1999) explains, natural law is different from theology, in that it does not rely fully on supernatural law or revealed sources but on empirical evidence concerning human existence and nature. Natural law is a source of social norm in the society. It provides the basis for moral system in different religious group. According to Owen (1997), in whatever setting of the society and religion, all share the common frame work of natural law. Looking at the process of absorbing social norm, members of a society utilize socialization and education to distinguish between the good and the evil. Social norms are based on human nature and are important convections required to achieve social stability. The major objective of natural law is to make or sustain socially valued roles for people in their society, in case where an individual holds valued social roles, one is highly likely to re ceive in return those good things in life that are obtainable in that society hence the society always a way of paying those people who adhere to its norms. In additional all sorts valued things that other people are able to pass on are almost involuntarily accorded to a person who holds societal appreciated roles, at least within the resources and norms ones society. (Barford, 1996). Most human being societies have adopted certain societal norms which result either from ethics or from intrinsic ideas. But according to Young, (2003), consequences are that they partially result to human societies being unable to forbid impunity. Eventually, serious tensions picks in the society that may lead to society’s demolition. Men in general learn to differentiate between good and evil through learning and socialization. Through reason, a man is able to distinguish between what is unacceptable and what can be accepted in a particular society. Some norms are vital for social stability and in this sense such norms are based on human natural history, they are conventions that we need to have a stable society.   Therefore society norms and ethics have a major role in setting the society free from disorder (Barford, 1996). If law totally breaks down, then society is worse off than before (Owen, 1997). Socrates believed in this statement and totally refused to break the law. He wondered what kind of citizen he will be if he refused to accept the ruling of the jury. In addition Reilly (2000) in his book the social organization of today are dissimilar from the first civilizations in that primitive cultures depended on unity of people to live. However currently everyone depends on cash inform of monitory value and it has established the same as the common good. According to Kibuka (2000), the society without cash would work mainly because it goes against individual nature. No matter how genuine and accountable people are civilized, people always need a reward. He continue to express criticism that without the reward everything will have no value hence the world will still be far away from civilization. In his book Reilly (2000) argues that an operational, liberated and just society must rest on a basic pri nciple. Right liberty cannot be real for all, unless the civil liberties of all are valued by all, these right can be liberty and the pursuit of happiness. According to Karl Marx, order is highly important for the organization and for maintenance of all human societies and to bring about civilization. He said the higher rank of order a society achieves, the more superior the society tends to be unable to find order and indeed the more chaotic it become (young, 2003). Marx contradicts with Reilly (2000) who thought civilization goes hand in hand with law and order in the system. He points out that through the period of anarchy and revolution a society mainly lack order and therefore becomes chaotic. Both Marx and Reilly (2000) however converge on the same thoughts that societies have a lot of the attributes of the united system; through swapping matter and energy to their surroundings as they add to their order specialization tend to develop. The world is an island and therefore we all need each other to survive and we communication which is the key to the organization and development of all human societies; this involves use of words and symbols. It’s therefore very vital to have a pattern of value, order and norms so that law and order will be maintained in a society; this explains why in a structured society there is need for law and order. In addition order and pattern is the core of social union and function (Cohen Arato, 2001). Karl Marx quoted that though much energy is put in a society to maintain order, change is unavoidable hence he believed that every society can be destroyed if unity is not maintained by law and order (Young, 2003). At this juncture, Marx was in agreement with (Reilly 2000) who argued out that for there to be order in the society we need law to be followed for law and orders go hand in hand.   Reilly (2000) believed that rational societies were structured to attain goals flexibly and were able to meet the test of time therefore adjusting for better. In what I regard as the major achievement of the Greek and Roman Empires, the ancient Greek empire has contributed a lot to civilization of the west. Since inception the Greek philosophy, it has continued to shape the whole of western thought impacting on modern philosophy and modern science (Jessop, 1998). Although many philosophers believe that neither inquiry nor the reason began with the ancient Greeks, the Socratic methods together with his ideas of form are entirely from the Greek. Socrates who was the teacher for Plato was an Athenian philosopher who believed that a person should strive always to do well. He emphasized that one should always know you and he was known for disobeying the bad command (Barford, 1996). Aristotle and Plato work forms the major philosophies that have greatly influenced the western philosophy. The Greece’s were very good in art, history, art and science which many countries including western countries borrowed to shape their growth of civilizat ion. All these cultures begun with what is known as golden age of Greece: it’s the time of cultural prosperity peace and time of law and order in Greece. More so myths, Olympics, democracy rule of law all originated in Greece.   Greek’s had a very rich culture which influenced western civilization. The most notable was mainly their philosophy and its culture which dictates their rich norms and values (Hefner, 1998). Greek scientist made radical discoveries in several fields like in mathematics, physics, medicine, biology and astronomy. This forms part of the reason why Greek civilization is still regarded as mother of discoveries. On addition it was first in Greeks where commercial trading post and colonies were founded this led to the growth of trade which in turn led to adoption of septic alphabetical scrip. These scripts led to the development of the subject mathematic. The Greek had several enemies who wanted to conquer them. The conflicts with the Persians did not only make the Greek Empire become very strong but also allowed establishing a very strong form of government which favored specialization (Hefner, 1998). To an extent ancient Greece affected civilization of the west with politics, this is because the Greece was the first to establish the democratic systems.   Laws as it’s in many western countries laws were voted on and proposed directly by the assembly of all citizens therefore Greece offered a form of government which is used by the western countries including the US. A form of government which has the Executive branch, the judicial branch and the judicial branch began with the Greece and later borrowed by the west. Greece was the first to realize the important of sports and make sport their tradition hence the first Olympic was held there. Surprisingly, up to date the western countries still compete on the same sports which were held on the first Olympics (Martin, 1999).For ancient Roman, Engineering was a main issue influencing western civilization. Nowadays the Greek technologies are used to build bridges, harbors and roads were buildings in the west. Cohen and Arato (20 01) express no doubt that civilization of the west has been shaped and largely based on Greece’s powerful politics, philosophers, medics, sports and classical art. The society has played a big role in the invention of law, in order to advance the concept of the common good. The common good was crucial to normative vision of what can be regarded as good life during the time of the Greek moral philosophy that formed the basis of western thought. The common good entails grasping idea that a person as sacred and social. Common good is based on understanding that human rights and dignity together with well being and human potential are achieved in one’s moral ecology. On the other hand it is the social justice that orients the moral action to the common good. Every person in the society who is dedicated to the quality of life and to the well being of every body gives in to the common good of all since. Plato asserted that in a just society, citizen bestowed themselves to the common good, act morally and wisely, and practices the occupation they are best suited. Aristotle contrary to that recommended that a state should be governed by middle class, because he thought that they are likely to struggle for fairness of the common good. Moreover he stressed that an individual depends on the society in order to survive a truly human life, and even that the state is a natural creation that precedes a person (Owen, 1997). As per St. Augustine, he diverted the natural law of society from one based on reason to one based on divine rule. In his argument, St Augustine Hefner (1998) apprehends God and churches as the vital base of civic virtue, law and order of the social order. Therefore religion is very important in shaping human destiny, for church offers laws and ethics to be followed. Its society’s role to come out with guidelines for defining what is norm and what is right. It is al so the society role in general to mold its own people. It has a function of maintaining law and order hence protecting its people. Jessop, (1998) asserts that the main function of civil society is to compel human beings to respect one another’s rights. Civilization can be achieved only when the civil societies in the western countries protect its members to pursue diverse interest at the same time the political parties striving to guide the members towards party goals. Nevertheless, many philosophers predict that the western civilization is on the verge of collapsing. Cohen and Arato (2001) attribute the collapse to invasion of the west culture by other cultures. Although, the west citizens are slowly rejecting their community culture, they still hold some sense of commitment towards it. Western Civilization Essay Example Western Civilization Essay Sometimes, it is very easy to read books about the lives of the real people who were able to overcome the crux in their own lives. The harder their challenges and difficulties were, the more entertaining it will be for the readers. We tend to be impressed with people who were able to write an account of their between life and death experiences and how they almost die. However, we have the tendency to forget how hard it might be for them to write down their own story of bitterness and much worse if their tragic experience was simply the beginning of a worse condition. The two authors in the books that are going to be analyzed and compared in this paper had the courage to relate their own experiences and humiliation as a Jew during World War II for the world to witness and remember the brutality of the War.   They both endured the pain as they recall the torture they had been through and put them in writing.   They narrated how tranquil and promising their lives were before the World War in the abode with their families. However, the war had ripped them with everything that could have included themselves. They were traumatized by massive and brutal deaths of people, their loved ones included. The two authors were the protagonists of their books. It was based on their first hand experiences during the war. If we are going to analyze the two books, we would have an idea how brutal the Nazi’s were and how tragic the Holocaust was. The first book was a narration of the true experiences in the Holocaust in the perspective of a Transylvanian s on as he witnessed the brutal death of his family members and how it gained an impact in his faith and his life. On the other hand, the other book described the same event on the perspective of a Czech daughter who lost her family and lucky enough to be able to escape and return to her hometown in Prague. The only thing was her escape in that war did not spare her. It simply opened the door that led her to another war and another torture she had to bear (Kovaly). We will write a custom essay sample on Western Civilization specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Western Civilization specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Western Civilization specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer If we are going to compare accounts of two authors, we first need to consider the background of each author. We have to identify the compelling forces in their lives that gave a blend in their works. The first book was titled â€Å"Night†, which was written by the author Elie Wiesel. He began his story by describing his town in Sighet, his family and himself in the year 1942 when he was only twelve years old. He had three sisters and his dad was a shopkeeper and a venerated Jewish leader. Their family was deeply religious; as a matter of fact, Elie was enthusiastic in learning the dogma of their religion. He wanted to learn more and he had a very deep faith in God (Wiesel). However, this changed when the Germans arrived and captured their land in 1944. Despite the early warning of a person who survived and witnessed the maltreatment that the Jews suffered in Poland, his townsmen did not heed. Rather, they simply made fun of him. It was year 1944 when they regret not to take proper consideration of the admonition given by the old man.   The Germans invaded their land and moved all the Jews out of Sighet to concentration camps in Auschwitz. The Germans were cordial at first but suddenly issued a decree that they should be impounded and transported into ghettos and concentration camps. They had no idea on what would happen next. It would have been a blessing if they would be killed immediately to spare them from torture and misery. However, it was an ardent intention of the Nazi’s to impose agonies to these religious people as imposed by the leader, Adolf Hitler. They were treated like animals as they were being transported to the concentration ca mps. When they reached the reception center, Elie was permanently separated with her mom and sister since they were directed to the gas chamber.   He was left only with his father. Inside the camp, they were forced to witness how the innocent babies where ruthlessly burned and thousands of people crying in despair. It was his first night in the camp but it made an indelible mark on Elie’s heart. It was the night that he doubted God’s reverence. That night, he thought that his God also died. It was the night that dissolved his optimism and enthusiasm for life. At a very young age, Elie witnessed the cruelty of life and that he is just a tiny speck of worthless being who had to fight hunger, oppression and injuries in order to survive. He was once a very religious student whose life at that time depended on the whims of the Nazi’s. His virtues changed. His idea of retaliation against anybody who would threaten to hurt his family changed and turned into his despa ir to live. His concern changed as he suffered blows and fought to live. His main concern that was previously focused on God deviated to anything that could fill his stomach. In the camp, they were identified not with their name but with their number to signify perhaps that their lives do not matter, they are just mere numbers. He did not look up at his father as a blessing because they are still alive but a curse, a burden that might cause him his life. The hard work and inhuman conditions made him deny God (Wiesel). Their transfer to another camp in Buna served another challenge to Elie. He had changed. His god had already died and hanged in the gallows. He was beaten and his pain no longer mattered. Days and nights do not have any difference nor death and life. It was this transfer that he realized his father’s worth because the latter was separated from him. They had to work hard in order to live. This was the last camp they had been before they started the most painful march. It was the march that separated Elie permanently from his father. It was the march that forced a son to leave his loving father. It was the march that deprived them of food and water and were even mocked by the guards A lot of prisoner killed even their own kin just for a morsel of bread. Out of the hundred prisoners who marched, only a dozen survived and reached Buchenwald where his father finally died of dysentery and sever beating from the officer and other prisoner. It was the climax of Elie’s senses. I t was weeks before the aids arrived and he could be finally branded as Holocaust Survivor. This was the end of the World War II and the end of this book.   However, this period was only the beginning of the other book (Wiesel). The other book, â€Å"Under the Cruel Star: A life in Prague 1941-1968†, the author narrated her life as a Jew in the Lodz camp. Her name was Heda Margolius Kovaly. Albeit they were in a different country and ghettos, their religious faith brought them into similar fate in the ghettos. Heda and her family were sent to Lodz ghetto. She was also separated from her family and needed to bear the abomination of the soldier’s in the camp. She was of the same age as Elie at that time, still an adolescent, supposedly innocent to the atrocities of the world. Like Elie, she witnessed massive deaths, injustices and forced labor. When the Russian troops approached, they were also forced to march. Unlike Elie, Kovaly was very fortunate to have a chance to escape and return to her homeland in Prague. However, much to Heda’s dismay, this was not the end of her torment; rather, it was just the advent. The citizens of Prague were scared and refused to provide help, simply because they are Jews. Even her relatives and non –Jew friends were apathetic towards her condition because they, too, were afraid to suffer the beatings from a Nazi. The war was coming to an end and she was already in Prague, her home town. Supposedly it should serve as a citadel for her to soothe at last the pains that she suffered during the war. Unfortunately, it was not (Kovaly). However, one good thing that happened to Heda after this war was a birth of hope that finally a gush of tranquil wind will finally blow over her. She was able to reunite and later marry her sweetheart Rudolph Margolius. Like Heda, he also survived the concentration camps and the war itself. He was a very virtuous man with a lot of ideas about his country and Prague in particular. He supported reform and believed that the principles of the Nazi were the exact opposite of Communism so he supported the principles of Communism and thought that it would be effective government systems that will help his countrymen develop after the ravages of the war. He was able to get a good job in the government as the Communist government rose into power. However, this actually marred the supposedly happy ending of the couple. This job actually took his life when he was accused of conniving with an enemy of the Communist government. It was the system that he supported that accused him of being a trait or. Everything would have been perfect if the Communist party had not risen into power and condemned her husband and separated him from her forever. Things were made worse because they had a son, Ivan Margolius, who was growing up at that time. Heda was forced to make a living to support her son. However, the incident deprived her and her son the right to live a normal life. Since her husband was an enemy of the Communist State, she was deprived of the privileges to get a decent job to raise her son nor was she allowed to be helped by others without suffering the consequences from the Communist government. No matter how her friends in Prague would have wanted to help her and her son, they were scared of the repercussions just like when the Nazi’s were still in their land.   They were forced to live life in poverty. They were treated like lepers that were needed to be isolated. Despite all this social persecution, she fell in love again and remarried Pavel Kovaly. However, i t seems that she was born with so much bad luck that whoever would lend a hand to help her would also suffer failure. Because of what happened, her new husband, who had a very promising career ended up having a bad reputation just because of his affiliation with Heda. In the book, Heda’s miseries and continuous struggle lasted for more than twenty years. When the social had gone worst, she was able to escape again and finally live peacefully in the United States. That was the end of her book and the end of the war in her life. This book was dedicated to her son who was clueless with the persecution of his father and the agony of her mother (Kovaly). These two books actually presented the two victims and survivors of war in different perspectives. They both believed in the same God and the same doctrine. It was the same religion that led them to concentration camps. They both had the ardent desire to overcome whatever challenges that would come their way. One magnified and illustrated the turmoil inside the concentration camp and the genocide of the Jews, while the other placidly illustrated her agonies during the war when she lost her family and yet survived just to face another war that took her beloved away from her. They were all torn by the war. They were all innocent victims of abusive government and capricious rulers. The titles of these two books were quite similar in a sense that they all compare their experiences with darkness. The first one was even titled â€Å"Night† (Wiesel), to describe that one long night of unbearable nightmare that altered his life forever; while the other one denotes the cruelty of the stars that deprived her of any light to guide for more than twenty years of her life in Czechoslovakia.   It was a saga of continuous struggle for better life but their struggle simply ended up into another saga filled with tears and bitterness. The courage of these two authors to share their tragic and humiliating experiences to reveal the truth about the grim of the war was so remarkable. It is not easy to share how tragic one’s life was, but these two authors made the difference in bringing the truth about what happened during those times. If there is one thing that their books reflected, that would be their determination to overcome whatever obstacle that would come their way. They did not resolve to self-pity. They struggled to move on even if they do not know what the future brings. They did not stop when they lost their loved ones. Instead, they continued and embraced life no matter how difficult it may seem. Their books reflected tragedies and misfortunes in one’s life are not enough reason to give up. No matter how heavy our burden in life could be, still, life must go on. Western Civilization Essay Example Western Civilization Essay Structured society relies on people knowing how to survive, and also how to survive with others. According to Owen, (1997), there exist the general skeleton of the social order which is so well distinct, planned, and planned that there’s room for personal freedom and creativity within the organization. In structured society, people works while every individual knowing his duty, for example if the society is structured, socially politically and economically. There need to be law and order hence need for specialization, this reduces conflict in terms of role assignment. The specialization is known to be the major drive for civilization. When mixed with division of labor, specialization allows for maintenance of law and order. In such societies duties and responsibilities are stated, for example in political structure we have the roles of the president affirmed and written in the constitution therefore one has guidelines to abide with. The leader has to have subject to rule, itâ €™s not possible to have rulers if you have no people to rule, hence need for structured society whereby people are civilized and are able to live together in harmony. Law and order is very vital in such societies (Owen, 1997). Christiano (2004) observes that when we live within the law, we share in the common good which helps all, and provides for a better world to grow and live in. But In Aristotelian scholasticism, ethics which are the basis for law are understood to mean the science for good life (Barford, 1996). In the same context, man is regarded as rational animal and therefore able to act in accordance with the right reason and also able to act justly and courageous. As members of the society, we are supposed to come together and advance based on the laws of the society we live in.   Reilly (2000) thinks that liberty was necessary for revolution only when used like a guiding rule, he emphasized that independence of each person must be respected. However, according to him total freedom for all cannot exist as a basis of the society. For one person to have entirely autonomy over another person, the other person will have to give up their freedom to allow the former to survive. When people move from their tribal clique, races to join new people in the working places for example town, they are said to undergo civilization which is a slow process which started long time ago more than 5000 years ago (Jessop, 1998). Civilization brings positive competition where everyone will do his best to be on the top of other ladder, sparkle. Civilized People are able to live together irrespective of their social background; it has increased trust between individuals to an extent that people are able to collect each other whenever a neighbor go astray, therefore togetherness in the community. We will write a custom essay sample on Western Civilization specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Western Civilization specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Western Civilization specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Natural law is viewed by many philosophers as the instrument used in the exploration of gods will. As Martin, (1999) explains, natural law is different from theology, in that it does not rely fully on supernatural law or revealed sources but on empirical evidence concerning human existence and nature. Natural law is a source of social norm in the society. It provides the basis for moral system in different religious group. According to Owen (1997), in whatever setting of the society and religion, all share the common frame work of natural law. Looking at the process of absorbing social norm, members of a society utilize socialization and education to distinguish between the good and the evil. Social norms are based on human nature and are important convections required to achieve social stability. The major objective of natural law is to make or sustain socially valued roles for people in their society, in case where an individual holds valued social roles, one is highly likely to re ceive in return those good things in life that are obtainable in that society hence the society always a way of paying those people who adhere to its norms. In additional all sorts valued things that other people are able to pass on are almost involuntarily accorded to a person who holds societal appreciated roles, at least within the resources and norms ones society. (Barford, 1996). Most human being societies have adopted certain societal norms which result either from ethics or from intrinsic ideas. But according to Young, (2003), consequences are that they partially result to human societies being unable to forbid impunity. Eventually, serious tensions picks in the society that may lead to society’s demolition. Men in general learn to differentiate between good and evil through learning and socialization. Through reason, a man is able to distinguish between what is unacceptable and what can be accepted in a particular society. Some norms are vital for social stability and in this sense such norms are based on human natural history, they are conventions that we need to have a stable society.   Therefore society norms and ethics have a major role in setting the society free from disorder (Barford, 1996). If law totally breaks down, then society is worse off than before (Owen, 1997). Socrates believed in this statement and totally refused to break the law. He wondered what kind of citizen he will be if he refused to accept the ruling of the jury. In addition Reilly (2000) in his book the social organization of today are dissimilar from the first civilizations in that primitive cultures depended on unity of people to live. However currently everyone depends on cash inform of monitory value and it has established the same as the common good. According to Kibuka (2000), the society without cash would work mainly because it goes against individual nature. No matter how genuine and accountable people are civilized, people always need a reward. He continue to express criticism that without the reward everything will have no value hence the world will still be far away from civilization. In his book Reilly (2000) argues that an operational, liberated and just society must rest on a basic pri nciple. Right liberty cannot be real for all, unless the civil liberties of all are valued by all, these right can be liberty and the pursuit of happiness. According to Karl Marx, order is highly important for the organization and for maintenance of all human societies and to bring about civilization. He said the higher rank of order a society achieves, the more superior the society tends to be unable to find order and indeed the more chaotic it become (young, 2003). Marx contradicts with Reilly (2000) who thought civilization goes hand in hand with law and order in the system. He points out that through the period of anarchy and revolution a society mainly lack order and therefore becomes chaotic. Both Marx and Reilly (2000) however converge on the same thoughts that societies have a lot of the attributes of the united system; through swapping matter and energy to their surroundings as they add to their order specialization tend to develop. The world is an island and therefore we all need each other to survive and we communication which is the key to the organization and development of all human societies; this involves use of words and symbols. It’s therefore very vital to have a pattern of value, order and norms so that law and order will be maintained in a society; this explains why in a structured society there is need for law and order. In addition order and pattern is the core of social union and function (Cohen Arato, 2001). Karl Marx quoted that though much energy is put in a society to maintain order, change is unavoidable hence he believed that every society can be destroyed if unity is not maintained by law and order (Young, 2003). At this juncture, Marx was in agreement with (Reilly 2000) who argued out that for there to be order in the society we need law to be followed for law and orders go hand in hand.   Reilly (2000) believed that rational societies were structured to attain goals flexibly and were able to meet the test of time therefore adjusting for better. In what I regard as the major achievement of the Greek and Roman Empires, the ancient Greek empire has contributed a lot to civilization of the west. Since inception the Greek philosophy, it has continued to shape the whole of western thought impacting on modern philosophy and modern science (Jessop, 1998). Although many philosophers believe that neither inquiry nor the reason began with the ancient Greeks, the Socratic methods together with his ideas of form are entirely from the Greek. Socrates who was the teacher for Plato was an Athenian philosopher who believed that a person should strive always to do well. He emphasized that one should always know you and he was known for disobeying the bad command (Barford, 1996). Aristotle and Plato work forms the major philosophies that have greatly influenced the western philosophy. The Greece’s were very good in art, history, art and science which many countries including western countries borrowed to shape their growth of civilizat ion. All these cultures begun with what is known as golden age of Greece: it’s the time of cultural prosperity peace and time of law and order in Greece. More so myths, Olympics, democracy rule of law all originated in Greece.   Greek’s had a very rich culture which influenced western civilization. The most notable was mainly their philosophy and its culture which dictates their rich norms and values (Hefner, 1998). Greek scientist made radical discoveries in several fields like in mathematics, physics, medicine, biology and astronomy. This forms part of the reason why Greek civilization is still regarded as mother of discoveries. On addition it was first in Greeks where commercial trading post and colonies were founded this led to the growth of trade which in turn led to adoption of septic alphabetical scrip. These scripts led to the development of the subject mathematic. The Greek had several enemies who wanted to conquer them. The conflicts with the Persians did not only make the Greek Empire become very strong but also allowed establishing a very strong form of government which favored specialization (Hefner, 1998). To an extent ancient Greece affected civilization of the west with politics, this is because the Greece was the first to establish the democratic systems.   Laws as it’s in many western countries laws were voted on and proposed directly by the assembly of all citizens therefore Greece offered a form of government which is used by the western countries including the US. A form of government which has the Executive branch, the judicial branch and the judicial branch began with the Greece and later borrowed by the west. Greece was the first to realize the important of sports and make sport their tradition hence the first Olympic was held there. Surprisingly, up to date the western countries still compete on the same sports which were held on the first Olympics (Martin, 1999).For ancient Roman, Engineering was a main issue influencing western civilization. Nowadays the Greek technologies are used to build bridges, harbors and roads were buildings in the west. Cohen and Arato (20 01) express no doubt that civilization of the west has been shaped and largely based on Greece’s powerful politics, philosophers, medics, sports and classical art. The society has played a big role in the invention of law, in order to advance the concept of the common good. The common good was crucial to normative vision of what can be regarded as good life during the time of the Greek moral philosophy that formed the basis of western thought. The common good entails grasping idea that a person as sacred and social. Common good is based on understanding that human rights and dignity together with well being and human potential are achieved in one’s moral ecology. On the other hand it is the social justice that orients the moral action to the common good. Every person in the society who is dedicated to the quality of life and to the well being of every body gives in to the common good of all since. Plato asserted that in a just society, citizen bestowed themselves to the common good, act morally and wisely, and practices the occupation they are best suited. Aristotle contrary to that recommended that a state should be governed by middle class, because he thought that they are likely to struggle for fairness of the common good. Moreover he stressed that an individual depends on the society in order to survive a truly human life, and even that the state is a natural creation that precedes a person (Owen, 1997). As per St. Augustine, he diverted the natural law of society from one based on reason to one based on divine rule. In his argument, St Augustine Hefner (1998) apprehends God and churches as the vital base of civic virtue, law and order of the social order. Therefore religion is very important in shaping human destiny, for church offers laws and ethics to be followed. Its society’s role to come out with guidelines for defining what is norm and what is right. It is al so the society role in general to mold its own people. It has a function of maintaining law and order hence protecting its people. Jessop, (1998) asserts that the main function of civil society is to compel human beings to respect one another’s rights. Civilization can be achieved only when the civil societies in the western countries protect its members to pursue diverse interest at the same time the political parties striving to guide the members towards party goals. Nevertheless, many philosophers predict that the western civilization is on the verge of collapsing. Cohen and Arato (2001) attribute the collapse to invasion of the west culture by other cultures. Although, the west citizens are slowly rejecting their community culture, they still hold some sense of commitment towards it.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Leedsichthys - Facts and Figures

Leedsichthys - Facts and Figures Name: Leedsichthys (Greek for Leeds fish); pronounced leeds-ICK-thissHabitat: Oceans worldwideHistorical Period: Middle-Late Jurassic (189-144 million years ago)Size and Weight: 30 to 70 feet long and five to 50 tonsDiet: PlanktonDistinguishing Characteristics: Large size; semi-cartilaginous skeleton; thousands of teeth About Leedsichthys The last (i.e., species) name of Leedsichthys is problematicus, which should give you some clue about the controversy occasioned by this gigantic prehistoric fish. The problem is that, although Leedsichthys is known from dozens of fossil remains from around the world, these specimens dont consistently add up to a convincing snapshot, leading to grossly divergent size estimates: more conservative paleontologists venture guesses of about 30 feet long and 5 to 10 tons, while others maintain that superannuated Leedsichthys adults could attain lengths of over 70 feet and weights of over 50 tons. Were on much firmer ground when it comes to Leedsichthys feeding habits. This Jurassic fish was equipped with a whopping 40,000 teeth, which it used not to prey on the larger fish and marine reptiles of its day, but to filter-feed plankton (much like a modern Blue Whale). By opening its mouth extra-wide, Leedsichthys could gulp in hundreds of gallons of water every second, more than enough to cover its outsized dietary needs. As with many prehistoric animals discovered in the 19th century, the fossils of Leedsichthys were an ongoing source of confusion (and competition). When the farmer Alfred Nicholson Leeds discovered the bones in a loam pit near Peterborough, England, in 1886, he forwarded them to a fellow fossil hunter, who misidentified them as the back plates of a stegosaur dinosaur. The next year, during a trip overseas, the eminent American paleontologist Othniel C. Marsh correctly diagnosed the remains as belonging to a giant prehistoric fish, at which point Leeds made a brief career of excavating additional fossils and selling them to natural history museums. One little-appreciated fact about Leedsichthys is that its the earliest identified filter-feeding marine animal, a category that also includes prehistoric whales, to attain giant sizes. Clearly, there was an explosion in plankton populations during the early Jurassic period, which fueled the evolution of fish like Leedsichthys, and just as clearly this giant filter-feeder went extinct when krill populations mysteriously plunged at the cusp of the ensuing Cretaceous period.

Monday, March 2, 2020

The History and Archaeology of Chauvet Cave

The History and Archaeology of Chauvet Cave Chauvet Cave (also known as  Chauvet-Pont dArc) is currently the oldest known rock art site in the world, apparently dating to the Aurignacian period in France, about 30,000-32,000 years ago. The cave is located in the Pont-dArc Valley of Ardà ¨che, France, at the entrance of the Ardà ¨che gorges between the Cevennes and Rhone valleys. It extends horizontally for nearly 500 meters (~1,650 feet) into the earth and consists of two main rooms separated by a narrow hallway. Paintings at Chauvet Cave Over 420 paintings have been documented in the cave, including numerous realistic animals (reindeer, horses, aurochs, rhinoceros, bison, lions, cave bears among others), human handprints, and abstract dot paintings. The paintings in the front hall are primarily red, created with the liberal applications of red ochre, while the ones in the back hall are mainly black designs, drawn with charcoal. The paintings at Chauvet are highly realistic, which is unusual for this period in Paleolithic rock art. In one famous panel (a little bit is shown above) an entire pride of lions is illustrated, and the feeling of movement and power of the animals is tangible even in photographs of the cave taken in poor light and at low resolution. Archaeological Investigation The preservation in the cave is remarkable. Archaeological material in Chauvet caves deposits include thousands of animal bones, including the bones of at least 190 cave bears (Ursus spelaeus). The remains of hearths, an ivory spearhead, and a human footprint have all been identified within the caves deposits. Chauvet Cave was discovered in 1994 by Jean-Marie Chauvet; the relatively recent discovery of this remarkably intact cave painting site has allowed researchers to closely control the excavations using modern methods. In addition, the researchers have worked to protect the site and its contents. Since 1996, the site has been under investigation by an international team led by Jean Clottes, combining geology, hydrology, paleontology, and conservation studies; and, since that time, it has been closed to the public, to preserve its fragile beauty. Dating Chauvet The dating of Chauvet cave is based on 46 AMS radiocarbon dates taken on tiny pieces of paint from the walls, conventional radiocarbon dates on human and animal bone, and Uranium/Thorium dates on speleotherms (stalagmites). The deep age of the paintings and their realism has led in some circles to a scholarly revision of the notion of paleolithic cave art styles: since radiocarbon dates are a more recent technology than the bulk of cave art studies, codified cave art styles are based on stylistic changes. Using this measure, Chauvets art is closer to Solutrean or Magdalenian in age, at least 10,000 years later than the dates suggest. Paul Pettitt has questioned the dates, arguing that the radiocarbon dates within the cave are earlier than the paintings themselves, which he believes are Gravettian in style and date to no earlier than about 27,000 years ago. Additional radiocarbon dating of the cave bear population continues to support the original date of the cave: the bone dates all fall between 37,000 and 29,000 years old. Further, samples from a nearby cave support the idea that cave bears may have been extinct in the region by 29,000 years ago. That would mean that the paintings, which include cave bears, must be at least 29,000 years old. One possible explanation for the stylistic sophistication of Chauvets paintings is that perhaps there was another entrance to the cave, that allowed later artists access to the cave walls. A study of the geomorphology of the cave vicinity published in 2012 (Sadier and colleagues 2012), argues that the cliff overhanging the cave collapsed repeatedly beginning 29,000 years ago, and sealed the only entrance at least 21,000 years ago. No other cave access point has ever been identified, and given the morphology of the cave, none is likely to be found. These findings do not resolve the Aurignacian/Gravettian debate, although even at 21,000 years of age, Chauvet cave remains the oldest known cave painting site. Werner Herzog and Chauvet Cave In late 2010, film director Werner Herzog presented a documentary film of Chauvet Cave, shot in three-dimensions, at the Toronto film festival. The film, Cave of the Forgotten Dreams, premiered in limited movie houses in the United States on April 29, 2011. 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Clottes J, and Lewis-Williams D. 1996. Upper Palaeolithic cave art: French and South African collaboration.  Cambridge Archaeological Journal  6(1):137-163. Feruglio V. 2006  De la faune au bestiaire - La grotte Chauvet-Pont-dArc, aux origines de lart parià ©tal palà ©olithique.  Comptes Rendus Palevol  5(1-2):213-222. Genty D, Ghaleb B, Plagnes V, Causse C, Valladas H, Blamart D, Massault M, Geneste J-M, and Clottes J. 2004.  Datations U/Th (TIMS) et 14C (AMS) des stalagmites de la grotte Chauvet (Ardà ¨che, France) : intà ©rà ªt pour la chronologie des à ©và ©nements naturels et anthropiques de la grotte.  Comptes Rendus Palevol  3(8):629-642. Marshall M. 2011.  Bear DNA hints at age of Chauvet cave art.  The New Scientist  210(2809):10-10. Sadier  B, Delannoy JJ, Benedetti L, Bourlà ©s DL, Stà ©phane J,  Geneste  J-M, Lebatard A-E, and Arnold M. 2012. Further constraints on the Chauvet cave artwork elaboration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Early edition. 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